Risks Associated with Low Doses and Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation: Why Linearity May Be (Almost) the Best We Can Do
In summary, excess cancer risks observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in many medically and occupationally exposed groups exposed at low or moderate doses are generally statistically compatible. For most cancer sites, the dose response in these groups is compatible with linearity over the range observed. The available data on biologic mechanisms do not provide general support for the idea of a low-dose threshold or hormesis. This large body of evidence does not suggest, and indeed is not statistically compatible with, any very large threshold in dose or with possible hormetic effects.